How is Genetic Information Stored and Copied in DNA?

What is the structure of DNA and how does it store genetic information?

What are the bases present in DNA and what is the composition of the sugar phosphate backbone?

How does the process of replication ensure that genetic information is copied accurately?

Answer:

The structure of DNA is a double helix, with bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine forming pairs along the strands. The sugar phosphate backbone holds the bases together in a stable structure. The genetic information is stored in the sequence of these bases along the strands.

During replication, the helicase enzyme unwinds and separates the two DNA strands. The DNA polymerase enzyme then adds complementary nucleotides to each exposed strand, following the base pairing rules (A with T, C with G). This results in two identical DNA molecules, each containing one original strand and one newly synthesized strand, ensuring accurate copying of genetic information.

Explanation:

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, plays a crucial role in storing genetic information in living organisms. The double helix structure of DNA allows it to hold large amounts of genetic information in an organized manner. The bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine pair up in a specific way (A with T, C with G) along the strands, forming the genetic code.

The sugar phosphate backbone provides stability to the DNA molecule and serves as the framework for the bases. This combination of bases and backbone creates a structure that can store and protect genetic information from damage.

During the process of replication, DNA unwinds and separates into two strands. The DNA polymerase enzyme then adds complementary nucleotides to each strand, based on the original sequence of bases. This ensures that the genetic information is accurately copied and passed on to new cells.

Overall, DNA structure and replication are essential processes that allow for the storage and accurate copying of genetic information in living organisms.

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